PERFECT ENGLISH GRAMMAR PDF

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English language PDFs which can be printed to help you practice your English grammar (with answers). download PDF downloads to practise your English grammar. TENSES. EXPLANATIONS tingrakecoupde.ml . Sometimes we can use the past simple here, especially in US English. • I've lost my keys (so I.


Perfect English Grammar Pdf

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tingrakecoupde.ml May be freely copied for personal or classroom use. The basic forms of the English verb tenses: positive negative. Practice Makes Perfect: English Grammar for ESL Learners. 9. Dr. Blanchard. our school. Rewrite each noun, capitalizing the proper nouns. 1. glass. 2. The Perfect English Grammar Workbook - Lisa McLendon - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. The perfect English grammar.

How to Use This Book This book is designed to quickly explain grammar rules and guidelines and to give you practice with them.

Search for something specific or browse the table of contents to see what you want to work on. Each topic includes a brief explanation and a few examples, and most have a practice exercise for you to try. The practice exercises and chapter quizzes are designed to make it fast and easy for you to check your work—all the answers are provided at the end of the book here.

For an easy-to-use reference guide, the original Perfect English Grammar handbook is a great choice this book was written as a companion to it. I offer apologies in advance if a mistake slipped through. We have to understand the rules before we know when and why to break them yes, we do break them sometimes.

L anguage is a wonderful thing: It lets us communicate and inform, entertain and enlighten. Grammar is what holds it all together and helps it all make sense.

Grammar grows and changes with language. It bends to accommodate poets and philosophers and physicists. The original speakers of language created grammar, bit by bit, and the users of language, through the ages, have shaped and altered it to meet our needs and sometimes our whims.

Just as language is an integral part of our lives, grammar is, too. But when grammar is ignored or confused, sentences come crashing down, paragraphs collapse, and meaning gets lost. People are confused.

They misunderstand. They get distracted. Use grammar as your tool to control language and make it work exactly how you want it to. The good news is that you probably already know most of English grammar. We all use it, every time we speak or write, usually without even thinking about it. A lthough children pick up spoken language with ease, writing is a different skill, one that must be learned.

The rules are different for writing. Writing is a craft. It takes work to get better, but with work you will get better. Writing is a process. Instead, take it one step at a time: Think about your topic, gather information, organize your facts and your thoughts, write, revise, think some more, write some more, edit, and then format.

Different kinds of writing call for different styles. For example, journalism is written in a more conversational style, and it usually follows Associated Press style.

That is, why are you writing? Are you writing to inform? Then, figure out what your point is. Are you writing a news story about something that happened in your city? An analysis of imagery in a novel? A summary of research findings? An argument for or against a particular policy or viewpoint? Once you determine that, stay focused. Next, figure out who your audience is.

Are you writing for the general public? A scholarly audience? Search for something specific or browse the table of contents to see what you want to work on. Each topic includes a brief explanation and a few examples, and most have a practice exercise for you to try. The practice exercises and chapter quizzes are designed to make it fast and easy for you to check your work—all the answers are provided at the end of the book here.

For an easy-to-use reference guide, the original Perfect English Grammar handbook is a great choice this book was written as a companion to it. I offer apologies in advance if a mistake slipped through.

We have to understand the rules before we know when and why to break them yes, we do break them sometimes. One other twist: L anguage is a wonderful thing: It lets us communicate and inform, entertain and enlighten. Grammar is what holds it all together and helps it all make sense. Grammar grows and changes with language. It bends to accommodate poets and philosophers and physicists. The original speakers of language created grammar, bit by bit, and the users of language, through the ages, have shaped and altered it to meet our needs and sometimes our whims.

Just as language is an integral part of our lives, grammar is, too. But when grammar is ignored or confused, sentences come crashing down, paragraphs collapse, and meaning gets lost. People are confused. They misunderstand. They get distracted. It makes language work. Use grammar as your tool to control language and make it work exactly how you want it to. The good news is that you probably already know most of English grammar.

We all use it, every time we speak or write, usually without even thinking about it. A lthough children pick up spoken language with ease, writing is a different skill, one that must be learned. The rules are different for writing. Clean, clear grammar is the foundation for solid writing. Writing is a craft. It takes work to get better, but with work you will get better. Writing is a process. Instead, take it one step at a time: Think about your topic, gather information, organize your facts and your thoughts, write, revise, think some more, write some more, edit, and then format.

Different kinds of writing call for different styles. First, figure out what your goal is. That is, why are you writing? Are you writing to inform?

Then, figure out what your point is. Are you writing a news story about something that happened in your city? An analysis of imagery in a novel? A summary of research findings? An argument for or against a particular policy or viewpoint? Once you determine that, stay focused. Next, figure out who your audience is. Are you writing for the general public? A scholarly audience? Experts in a particular field?

Your peers? People whose first language is not English? Your audience will determine how formal you want your writing to be, what sort of vocabulary you will use, and how complex your sentences and paragraphs will be.

Then, figure out what information you need to include and how much detail you need to go into. Gather your facts and analyze them. Always cite your sources! Last, plan your composition.

Some people write each piece of information on an index card or a PowerPoint slide, to make it easy to put them in order and move things around. Some people jot down a brief list of topics in the order they want to write about them.

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It sums up what the point is and why your readers should care. The first paragraph is the entry into your composition. Some people write down the details first, then go back and write the transitions and summaries. Others write everything in order. If you get stuck, talk it through. Listen to any questions they might have. Probably the most straightforward and best-known composition structure is introduction-body-conclusion.

You can do this in five paragraphs an intro, three paragraphs of body, a conclusion or five pages or five chapters—give the readers an overview of your point, describe and detail the ideas that make your point, then wrap it all up with a summary. But no matter how you structure your composition, here are a few things to remember:.

Be clear about what your point is and be as interesting as you can be. But, you might say, that tangent is really interesting! If you find yourself saying that, think about this: Maybe you need to revisit your plan which is fine—writers do it all the time. Even if you are writing an opinion, having data or specific examples to back it up makes your argument stronger.

And always credit your sources. You want the reader to stay with you and understand the progression of ideas and information. They make your writing flow smoothly and allow the reader to follow your train of thought.

Transition words or phrases can begin a sentence to tie that idea to the previous idea.

English Grammar Lessons

Sometimes you might need a whole sentence or even a whole brief paragraph to transition between ideas. The important thing is not to swerve from one idea to the next without a transition. Transitions usually fall into one of these categories:.

This is by no means an exhaustive list, but it gives you an idea of what sorts of words and phrases work as transitions. Which of these transitions sets up a contrast? Which of these transitions sets up an example? Which of these transitions sets up an addition? Which of these transitions sets up a result?

Which of these transitions sets up a conclusion? Why use five words when one would do? Too many words and not enough substance will distract or bore readers, neither of which you want. Find the example, statistic, or fact that best illustrates your point and leave it at that. No need to hit readers over the head with a load of repetitive support.

You do, however, need to support your point. This shows up as two problems. One is having no clear point at all, which leaves a reader confused or frustrated. Editing is far more than running spell-check you do run spell-check, right?

If you need to edit your own work, you can do a few things to make it more successful:. After clearing your head, you can take a fresh look.

This makes sentences that are awkward, overwrought, or poorly punctuated jump out at you. This helps you focus on the words from a perspective different from the one you used for writing. Why is it important to edit? It all comes down to presenting a polished piece of writing to your readers. T he parts of speech are the categories to which all words belong.

They let us classify what a word does in a sentence. Unlike many other languages, English lets some words shift from one part of speech to another without any changes to them. Sometimes people do it on purpose; other times, a word broadens its scope naturally, falling into several categories.

As a result, thousands of English words fall into more than one part of speech, and what category it is depends on what role it has in a particular sentence.

Examples of verbs: See chapter 6. Examples of nouns: Elvis, studio, guitar, talent, fame. See chapter 8. Examples of determiners: See chapter 7. Examples of pronouns: See chapter Examples of prepositions: Examples of conjunctions: Examples of interjections: Oh, no!

Once the scientists returned from Alaska, they calculated their climatic data. Write down the noun s , but not the pronouns, in the sentence: Write down the verb s in the sentence: Write down the adjective s in the sentence: Write down the conjunction s in the sentence: Write down the preposition s in the sentence: Write down the pronoun s , but not the nouns, in the sentence: Write down the adverb s in the sentence: Write down the interjections s in the sentence: Write down the determiner s in the sentence:.

Answers can be found here. A s you know by this point in your life, English spelling is, to put it bluntly, a hot mess. Then there are things like numbers that can be rendered using either letters or digits. This chapter will cover some of the basic principles of spelling and style and give you tips and practice with common trouble spots. Read a variety of good writing: Push yourself to read deeper and more complex texts.

The more you read, the more words you encounter and the more familiar you become with them. Research has shown that the physical act of writing helps people remember better. Then look up the word to see what it means in context, plus what else it can mean. Merriam-Webster, Oxford, and Dictionary.

You may need to look up a word a few times, especially if a lot of time passes between when you first see it and when you reencounter it. See how those words are put together—for instance, how endings are attached or how certain consonants change. Then answer the questions below.

Because lizards are not homeothermic, they have a narrower range of habitats than birds. What is the definition of the word? What is the part of speech of the word? How is the word pronounced?

Are there any alternative spellings of the word? What other forms of the word are given in the dictionary, and what parts of speech are they? You may need to look at the entries above and below the word itself. There are three major trouble spots:. Many spell- checkers flag British variants. Look up the words if you need to—or just for fun! Prefixes—such as pre- and post- and trans-, among many others—get tacked on to the beginning. Suffixes—such as - tion and -ing and -ment—latch on to the end.

Inflected endings are suffixes on nouns and verbs that indicate number or tense for more on this, see chapter 6: Verbs and chapter 8: With suffixes in particular, English has a few spelling rules that work pretty consistently:. Exceptions are words that end -ee, -oe and -ye: Their dog is really hairy. Perez is next up to bat. Did that writer just dangle a participle? See here for more about participles. Where the letters drop out, we put in an apostrophe.

Notice that the apostrophes go where the missing letters were. They are grammatical and a perfectly legitimate part of English. In fact, deliberately avoiding contractions in writing makes it sound stuffy and stilted. Ditto for abbreviations: We bought bananas. Bananas were on sale. No apostrophe. But once you make a noun possessive, here comes the apostrophe: One exception in many style guides is single letters: Not an apostrophe in sight.

When you see an apostrophe, say the contraction as two words. For example: Can we take you are car to the concert? Their 4. Use only numbers or spell out months? The whole year or the last two digits? Abbreviate months and days of the week? Is it a. This is where a style guide comes in handy because it answers all these questions for you.

That said, here are a few things the style guides generally agree on:. January 31, His birthday is in February. Friday night just before midnight, Saturday morning just after midnight.

The call came in shortly after 10 p. Assume US English. Wednesday 2. December 7, , b. December 7, c. Here are a few things the style guides generally agree on:.

For a number less than zero, add a zero before the decimal point: If you use the dollar sign, use numerals for the amount: Ditto for cents, if anyone still uses the cents sign. Use numerals for the percentage in either case: You may run across the terms cardinal and ordinal for numbers.

Cardinal numbers are the counting numbers: Ordinal numbers are the sequence numbers that is, they put things in order: The same rules for spelling them out or using numerals apply to both types. Expressions such as a couple of, a few, several, some, a number of, a bunch of, many, and a lot of are common in casual language and are used when a precise quantity is either unknown or irrelevant.

Use a plural verb with them. While you are at the store, can you get some milk? Paul should have known better with a girl like her. For questions 9—12, fill in the correct form of the given word. W e covered parts of speech in chapter 3 and word-level issues of spelling and style in chapter 4. The subject almost always comes before the verb, but it may not be at the very beginning of a sentence, and there may be other words between the subject and the verb.

The predicate is simply what finishes the sentence. Harold is the subject: Built a surveillance machine is the predicate: With questions, the word order is a little different because we put the subject between an auxiliary verb see section 6. Sir Fluffypants caught three mice this morning. He was very proud of himself. But because of the carnage, an awful mess on the carpet needed to be cleaned up. Subjects and verbs are two elements that have to agree in number see section 6.

This is usually pretty straightforward, but—at this point you should not be surprised—there are some trouble spots: Compound subjects joined with and are plural. Intervening phrases or clauses can throw you off, but remember: Use only the subject to decide which verb you need. Not all action verbs require direct objects, but most can take them. The children at the party ate cake. Cake is what they ate, the direct object.

An indirect object is always a noun or pronoun and almost never appears by itself without a direct object. The guests brought the birthday girl presents. Presents is what they brought, the direct object, and the birthday girl is who received them, the indirect object.

Her mother showed us photos of the party later. Photos are what she showed, the direct object, and us is who saw them, the indirect object. The object of a preposition is a noun or pronoun, or sometimes a whole clause, that follows a preposition to complete a prepositional phrase see section 5.

The party was held in Watson Park. Watson Park is the object of the preposition in. Tree is the object of the preposition under. Peter sent his mother flowers for her birthday.

Joel will be going home after dinner. Will you return the gift to the address on the envelope? Kelly sent her classmates an email about the group project. Sounds like a sentence, right? But clauses can be independent or dependent. Independent clauses are complete sentences—they can stand on their own. But dependent clauses, also called subordinate clauses, are not complete sentences —they have to be part of a larger sentence.

Complex sentence: After he cooks, we clean up. Dependent clause plus independent clause. When I find myself overwhelmed with work independent dependent 3. Yesterday, Sam and Shana finished their project independent dependent 4. She came in covered with mud independent dependent 5. Subordinators fall into two main categories: The relative pronouns are who, whom, which, that and their indefinite forms whoever, whomever, whichever.

Relative clauses introduce more information about a noun. The relative pronoun can serve as the subject or an object in the clause. Who grew up on Tatooine is the subordinate clause, with who as the subject and grew up as the verb. The Death Star plans, which the Bothan spies stole, were used to plot the attack. Which the Bothan spies stole is the subordinate clause, with which as the direct object of the verb stole.

Subordinating conjunctions are conjunctions such as until, unless, if, how, wherever, because, after, and although, among others. They often indicate a time frame or a consequence.

Once we finished our essays, we could enjoy the beautiful day. But the ghost that haunted the library is gone. They can occur with other objects or with complements, or simply with a subject and verb.

In their house, off the charts, and despite the rain are examples of prepositional phrases. The whole thing works like one big stuck-together noun unit—remember this for agreement purposes. This old house, her brother in Amsterdam, and that doggie in the window are examples of noun phrases. Roger has always been interested in clothes.

Has been is the main verb, always is an adverb, and interested in clothes is the subject complement see next section. Roger prefers to wear suits and hats. To wear is the infinitive; the phrase functions as the direct object of prefer. Wearing a seersucker suit and straw hat, Roger stuck out among his fellow students. Wearing is the participle that heads up the phrase, which modifies Roger. At midnight, dozens of sleepy people were awakened by the noise and wondered what had happened.

If you want to get good grades, make sure you do the readings and the homework. Complements can be single words, phrases, or entire clauses, but the important thing is that they are telling you more about the subject. This bracket is what you need to fix the shelf. The verb is links the complement, what you need, with the subject, bracket. After the coach made them run wind sprints, the players were exhausted.

The verb were links the complement, exhausted, with the subject, players. She overcame an abusive childhood, got an education, and became the head surgeon.

When I grow old, I shall wear the bottoms of my trousers rolled. Bruce Springsteen is truly the boss. Be especially careful of adverbs and phrases referring to time. The Senate Judiciary Committee will confront the administration over the practice of targeted killings at a hearing Tuesday.

This makes it sound as if the targeted killings happened at a hearing Tuesday because that phrase comes after the targeted killings rather than after confront the administration.

At a hearing Tuesday could also go at the very beginning of the sentence. Having finished dessert, the waitstaff cleared the plates away.

Did the waitstaff finish the dessert? The sentence needs to be rewritten; two possibilities are After the diners finished dessert, the waitstaff cleared the plates away or Having finished dessert, the diners asked the waitstaff to clear the plates away.

The prosecutor announced that the suspect had been charged with murder during a news conference downtown. We will honor three veteran journalists for their dedication to accurate and honest reporting at the Capitol Hill Club. When reorganizing your business, employees must trust that you have a clear destination in mind and that you are committed to progress. After 95 years of working the land Who is working the land? When reorganizing your business This makes it sound as if the employees are reorganizing your business, when in fact, you are.

For example, each element should be a noun phrase, or each should be a clause. The city is dealing with locally produced ozone, pollution from the Gulf Coast, and prairie burns cause high levels of smoke. The base of the first element is the noun ozone, the second element is the noun pollution, but the third element is a clause: This means that the construction is not parallel.

You can fix this by making the last element into a noun modified by either a relative clause or a participial phrase:. With correlative conjunctions see section So, for instance, if you put a verb after either, make sure you also have one after or: Instead of We will have to find the book either at the library or go download a copy, try We will have to either get the book at the library or go download a copy.

Natural gas prices have fallen, which not only affects the price homeowners pay for gas but also the price of electricity produced by gas power plants. Many victims of the bombings died, were seriously injured, or lost limbs.

The coach said the players needed to work on fundamentals, offense, and try to handle the ball better. The professor objected to both the structure of the article and it was poorly written. Natural gas prices have fallen, which affects not only the price homeowners pay for gas but also the price of electricity produced by gas power plants.

Parallel 3. Parallel 4. Not parallel Fix by turning the last element into a noun: The coach said the players needed to work on fundamentals, offense, and ball handling. The professor objected to both the structure of the article and its poor writing.

Or restructure so each element has a verb: The professor both objected to the structure of the article and said it was poorly written. The village was deserted, except for journalists in a dusty tent and Syrian army soldiers who were dismantling explosives. What is the subject of the sentence? Does the subject of the sentence agree with the verb? What is the direct object of the sentence? Which of the following is not an object of a preposition?

What is the relative clause in the sentence? For questions 11—15, identify whether the clause is independent or dependent. Why do the stars shine? We can figure it out independent dependent Wild horses are facing drought and losing their habitat independent dependent. The tall, dark stranger turned out to be the hero. To grasp quantum mechanics takes years of study. Angered by the rude fans, the athlete walked off the field. She had a craving for a big, juicy steak.

For questions 21—25, mark whether the sentence has a misplaced modifier, nonparallel construction, or no error. The nurse who was treated for Ebola spoke at a news conference as members of her nursing staff looked on after being discharged from the hospital. If the mayor supports the parking exemption, no one will be able to find a spot on the north side of campus.

We need to tidy up the backyard, the shed, and trim the front hedges. English verbs have three main forms, also called principal parts: Verbs also have a present participle, or -ing, form, which shows up with some auxiliary verbs as well as in participles and gerunds. The -ed and -ing endings join directly to the verb. When a verb ends in e, the final e usually drops out in the present participle form: If a one-syllable verb ends in a single consonant, that consonant usually doubles before the ending: For multisyllable verbs ending in a single consonant, that consonant usually does not double in American English: Auxiliary verbs are forms of be, have, and do and combine with other verb forms.

Be and have forms mark tense, aspect, and voice see sections 6. Did you read the paper? Other auxiliary forms are modals see section 6. Most professional writing, journalism, research papers, reports, and nonfiction books are written in third person.

Fiction, memoirs, and personal essays are often written in first person, using I, when someone wants to tell a story from a personal point of view. Last night I dreamt I went to Manderley again. Everywhere we turn, we see people staring at their phones. If you like that shirt, then you should download two.

I wrote that paper a year ago. She is the youngest of seven sisters. When you think of the meaning of life, what do you think of? In regular verbs, only the third person singular form adds an -s:.

My sister wears pink on Wednesdays. On Wednesdays, we wear pink. Your friend here is only mostly dead. They were looking for two droids. I am waiting for it to stop raining. With four aspects and three tenses, forms multiply pretty quickly, but they do each have a particular role and meaning: Contractions are common with forms that include auxiliary verbs.

I loved that book. Alyssa built the shelves. We did it! This is formed with had been plus the -ing form of the verb:.

The Perfect English Grammar Workbook - Lisa McLendon

Note 1: The present progressive is often used with a simple future meaning, usually when the action is happening soon or at a specified time: We are meeting them after work. My colleagues are flying to Chicago for the conference. Note 2: There are three moods: Indicative mood is the most common. It states a fact, asks a question, or expresses an opinion: You bought the blue dress. What made you choose the blue one? I think you look great! Subjunctive mood is used for hypothetical and contrary-to-fact situations, as well as for wishes and requests.

The somewhat complicated rules for verb tense with subjunctives have been undergoing a simplification as the language changes. Remember that verbs are usually in the past tense but not with let subjunctives , and could, would, and should show up a lot. Think of If I were you and let that be your model. Imperative mood expresses a command: Get out of this house! Entertain us. Stop at red lights.

The subject you is understood but usually omitted. MOOD Identify the mood of the verb in each sentence. Call me when you want to talk. When I get to the end of a book, I start another one. She wished she knew how to play a musical instrument. The two voices are active and passive. Active voice is simple subject-verb or subject-verb-object structure see section 5.

Passive voice takes the direct object and makes it the subject, with the verb being done to the subject. The original subject is sometimes put into a by phrase:. Her bridesmaids wore green dresses. Green dresses were worn by her bridesmaids. Passives can sometimes be wordy or too indirect for what you want to say. They can also be deliberately vague when no by phrase is included:. The First National Bank was robbed yesterday. A suspect in the robbery was arrested this morning.

Obviously, police arrest people.

But the important thing here is that a suspect is in custody. Passive voice is not the same as a linking verb see next section or a verb phrase that includes auxiliary verbs.

Passives occur only with verbs that can take a direct object, called transitive verbs see next section. The weather seems unstable today. Hail is falling from the sky. The dogs are frightened by thunder. A bunch of tree limbs were knocked down in the storm. The difference is in the predicate see section 5. Linking verbs connect the subject to the predicate. Action verbs can stand alone or have something else in the predicate, such as a direct object or prepositional phrase.

Action verbs can be transitive or intransitive. All these two fancy terms do is distinguish verbs that take a direct object see section 5. Transitive verbs have a direct object: Many action verbs can be either transitive or intransitive, depending on the sentence: Olga just read War and Peace.

She reads daily. Linking verbs, on the other hand, are always intransitive. They have subject complements see section 5. She seems really happy right now. The club bicycled to the next town and back. The dog ate an entire pizza. My aunt became a biochemical researcher. We want progress and we want it now! They include the following:. With a modal, verb forms that normally change to indicate person see section 6.

All this means is that if you start writing with present tense, keep it in present, and if you start in past tense, keep it in past. One instance where the tense can change is in reported speech. Something said in the past about the present is reported in the past tense, something said in the past about the past is reported in the past perfect, and something said in the past about the future is reported with a modal.

Here are some examples:. John said he saw a hundred birds in the yard. John said he had seen them yesterday, too. Mary Kay said she would come tonight to see the birds. Compare these sentences:.

Frank said his father was an electrical engineer. Frank said his father was a kind, funny man. With the first sentence, readers will assume the father is simply retired. Also, if there is a contrast between past and present, leave the present in the present tense:. Phrasal verbs can also be split—that is, other words can come between the verb and the preposition:. These are called verbals and include participles, gerunds, and infinitives. Participles are verbs that act like adjectives.

English has active participles and passive participles. Active participles are the -ing form of the verb; passive participles are the third principle part see section 6. Gerunds are verbs that act like nouns. They can be subjects, direct objects, or objects of prepositions.

They are always the -ing form of the verb: Michael Phelps is really good at swimming. The park offers hiking and biking. Cooking is their hobby. Infinitives are the to form of the verb. To write like a professional, learn the rules.

Perfect infinitives are formed with to have plus the past participle form and indicate action prior to the rest of the sentence: To have lived in Beirut then, must have been harrowing. Passive infinitives are the passive forms of transitive verbs, formed with to be present or to have been past plus the past participle form: To have been taken from her family at such a young age must have been traumatic for Lucy. To be or not to be, that is the question.

Spurs jangling, the cowboy walked up to the bar. Horseback riding is her one passion. The bound volumes of newspapers are in the basement. Where were my friends when I needed them? The Allies had just won the war. I wish you were here to see this! Go on, take another piece. Her joy in life seems faded. I ate dinner in a fancy restaurant. You can check out up to 12 books at a time, but you can have them for only two weeks.

Choose a kitten that likes to purr.

Sailing is a sport that requires a lot of money. After the burglary, shattered glass was strewn all over the kitchen floor. For questions 21—25, fill in the correct form of the verb in parentheses.

You may need to add an auxiliary verb. D eterminers are a special kind of modifier. Determiners fall into several categories: The is the definite article, which means that you are talking about a noun that has already been mentioned or is known: Did you bring the camera? Do you have a camera? They sell cameras and tripods. The demonstratives—this, these, that, those—point out something specific about the noun, and can contrast it with another noun, often something closer this or farther away that.

The distance can be figurative distance as well as physical: Do you like this dress? I like that one better. Possessives mark who or what something belongs to or is associated with. Her new job. Our mutual friend. There were no peaches left, but I ate two plums and some grapes.

A quantifier can also specify a segment of a group—such as each, every, both, neither see section 8. The interrogatives—what, which, whose—ask for a specific detail: Which car did you decide to get? What species of bird is that? Whose phone is on the table? The porch needs sweeping. That boy is trouble on wheels. Which sandwich do you want: A s mentioned briefly in chapter 3, nouns are people, places, things, ideas, or concepts.

Adjectives traditionally modify nouns—big dog, blue house—and nouns themselves can work like adjectives, stacking up before a noun to add on another dimension of meaning: These occur in three ways:.

These have fused into a single word, such as basketball, cheeseburger, and website. These are still individual words, although they are treated as a unit, such as garage sale, first baseman, and parking lot. How can we tell which compounds close, which stay open, and which get hyphenated? US English in particular trends toward closed compounds but not in all instances.

Making nouns possessive is pretty straightforward: For singular nouns, this is all you need to do: If the noun is plural and already ends in -s, just add an apostrophe: Only the last word of a noun phrase gets made possessive: Please do not use apostrophe-s to make a noun plural.

I will remind you about this again in section 8. These are words such as association, band, class, company, family, group, organization, staff, team, and so on. What you need to remember is that in US English, grammar trumps meaning, and these nouns are considered singular, so use a singular verb see section 5. The team is ready for its midseason tournament. The agency members are preparing sections of the report. The faculty members are going to vote on the measure.

Count nouns are words such as cars, gears, wheels, windows, and license plates. You can say many cars, six gears, four wheels, each window, few license plates. Noncount nouns are words such as gas, air, paint, and grime. The definite article, the, refers to a noun that has been specified or already mentioned or is known or important: Definite articles can be used with singular or plural nouns. Whether you use a or an depends on the sound—not the letter—immediately following the article.Not an apostrophe in sight.

If you find yourself saying that, think about this: Write down the pronoun s , but not the nouns, in the sentence: No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections or of the United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the Publisher.

Which car got stolen? Watson Park is the object of the preposition in.