Educational psychology: theory into practice / by Robert E. Slavin Author: Slavin, Robert E. Subject: 1. PSIKOLOGI PENDIDIKAN Publisher: Boston: Allyn and. When I first set out to write Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice, I had a very clear purpose in mind. I wanted to .. Bob Slavin provides an example of. From renowned educational psychologist, Robert Slavin, the Tenth and Practice (10th Edition) By Robert E. Slavin,Read PDF Educational.
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Kelvin Seifert is professor of educational psychology at the University of the editor of the online journal called "Teaching Educational Psychology," and has. Do you suppose you. CHAPTER 8 STUDENT-CENTERED AND CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACHES TO INSTRUCTION tingrakecoupde.ml slavin. Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more.
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Upcoming SlideShare. These results suggest that experts and novices differ not only in the amount of knowledge they have, but also in how they organize that knowledge in memory.
However, you are able to understand that problems in the home are causing him stress and are responsible for his poor performance. How can we tell that experts' knowledge is more integrated?
The lesson plan integrates knowledge of content to be taught with knowledge of teaching methods. According to Leinhardt and Greeno 1 , a lesson plan includes global plans not related to specific lesson content or subject matter for example, "Begin with an example that shows the importance of the lesson topic to students' lives outside of school" , local plans related to content and subject matter for example, "Before discussing the specifics of the Civil War, ask students to brainstorm what it would have been like to be an African American child or a white child around 1 " , and decision elements that make the lesson plan responsive to expected and unexpected events for example, "If the students do not want to move forward with the lesson, start reading the Civil War diary passage to engage 10 CHAPTER 1 B E C O M I N G AN E X P E RT them in the next step," "If the students do not seem interested in the passage, ask them to imagine what soldiers' lives were like".
Global parts of the lesson plan might include routines for checking homework, presenting new material, and supervising guided practice.
These global parts of the lesson plan apply regardless of the content being taught. Local parts of the plan are tailored to the content being taught.
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Decision elements in the plan tell the teacher what to do when typical types of questions are asked, and they allow for unanticipated circumstances, such as times when students do not understand the material as quickly as usual. A good lesson plan enables the expert teacher to teach effectively and efficiently see Figure 1.
By contrast, novice teachers have less complex, less interconnected lesson plans. Novices' teaching plans often do not include the types of examples and explanations they need to teach effectively see Figure 1.
For example, in a lesson on photosynthesis, i f a student asks i f green plants need soil to survive, an expert teacher answers that soil supplies only water and minerals, but the food that plants need is made within them as plant cells transform sunlight into chemical energy. Novices would not be as likely to refocus the question back onto the main lesson theme of photosynthesis.
How important do you bel ieve teachers' level of commitment is in daily teaching? Finally, how important do you bel ieve In addition to well-organized and interrelated knowledge of content and pedagogy, expert teachers need knowledge of the social and political context in which teaching occurs Berliner, In fact, knowing how to work effectively with people with diverse interests is an essential part of being an expert teacher, often just as important as knowledge of how to teach.
Expert teachers need to know how to package curricular innovations to convince other teachers, parents, and administrators of the worth of these innovations. These rewards might include loyalty of co-workers and the promise of help when the expert teacher needed it.
Such practical ability, or savvy, is an essential part of teaching expertise. In summary, expert teachers have extensive, well-organized knowledge that they can draw on readily during teaching.
In addition to knowledge of subject matter and of how to teach, experts have knowledge of the political and social contexts in which teaching occurs. This knowledge allows expert teachers to adapt their teaching to practical constraints in their field, including the need to become recognized as expert teachers.
But comm itment to the daily tasks of teaching is what keeps a teacher com ing back to the classroom day in and day out Motivation is what gives a teacher a spark and the energy for teaching that students respond to. Ask students to name as many different sources of information as they can.
If they need help, start them off by suggesting that a textbook is a source of information. List responses on the board. As a class, determine how many different kinds of sources have been listed.
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Some perhaps most will be printed matter e. An Does this list include any people?
Which kind of person could be a source of information? Does a person have to be a "certified expert" to be a source of information? What kind of place might be a source of information e. Does a place have to offer or have printed materials to be a source of information? Does this list include any "things" that are not printed matter or other modern media? What kinds of things can be considered a source of information e.
As a class, brainstorm another list of sources of information. This time try to focus on sources that are not composed largely of printed matter.
Once the brainstorm is over, go over the list and ask students to explain why they think the items are sources: What can you find out from each e. Where was it, and how was that place a source of information? Does anyone ever remember having a guest speaker in the classroom? How was that person a source of information? What was it, and what did it provide information about? Explain to the students that using alternative sources requires information-gathering techniques that might be different from what they are used to.
When you get information from the encyclopedia, you just look up the subject and read the articles that discuss it-not much of a challenge. It takes more imagination than just reading one article, but it is also a lot more interesting. The encyclopedia is not a waste of time, though--often it is the first place you should look to find out about other possible sources of information. Choose a current topic on which a written assignment will be based.
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Sign Up Already have an access code? Instructor resource file download The work is protected by local and international copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning.East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. There was good coverage of the learning process, although I would add information about learning and the brain.
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